The effects of three acaricides on the developmental biology of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida).
James D. Ellis and Keith S. Delaplane
Small hive beetles (Aethina tumida, SHB) are an emerging problem for beekeepers internationally. Here we report how SHB development is affected by three acaricides, representing three chemical classes, that are used to control varroa mites (Varroa destructor): pyrethroids (fluvalinate - Apistan®), botanical extracts (thymol, camphor, menthol, eucalyptol - Apilife VAR®), and organophosphates (coumaphos - Checkmite+®). Our data indicate that the three acaricides vary in toxicity to SHB developmental stages. Apistan was toxic to feeding and wandering larvae but innocuous to adults while Apilife VAR only exhibited toxicity to perpetually-wandering larvae. Checkmite+ had the broadest toxicity, killing both larvae and adults. The three acaricides only affected pupal development with regard to d spent pupating. There was no increased mortality in pupae that were exposed to the acaricides as feeding or wandering larvae. Our data are useful for developing chemical controls for various developmental stages of SHB by demonstrating which developmental stages are most vulnerable to three chemical treatments
acaricide, Apilife VAR, Apistan, Checkmite+, small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, development